Historically, after the period of rapid development in the Old Order (1945-1966) and New Order (1966-1998), during the era of transformation since 1999, the growing speed of the construction industry in Indonesia has decreased. At this time under the economic crisis conditions and prolonged strong competition, the industry is facing suffering situations. The slow development of the construction industry in Indonesia is also caused by the poor construction project performance. It appears that the poor performance of construction projects have not been able to support the development process in Indonesia.

This paper aims to study the existing conditions of the construction industry in Indonesia and to identify causes of its slow development process through the process approach. This approach assumes that the source of the problems in construction project is the construction process (Egan, 2002, Kashiwagi, 2005). Based on the analysis of the existing procurement process, a framework is developed to improve implementation process of construction projects in Indonesia, especially in public works. The framework is expected to improve the performance of construction project through minimizing risk by construction procurement system.¤

[Dewi Larasati & Watanabe Tsunemi, Presented in International Seminar of SIBE, Bandung Indonesia, 2009]

As a developing country, Indonesia needs strong support from the construction industry to provide infrastructure. However, the growth in Indonesia’s construction sector is running slower than at its peak growth in 2006 at 9%, and forecast growth in 2012 is 6.86% (BMI Report, 2009). Poor performance of the construction project is considered one of the main causes of slow development in the Indonesian construction industry.

Observations of real conditions of construction projects in Indonesia suggest that this poor performance is largely the result of many risks that were not anticipated in the implementation of projects. On the other hand, the price-based selection of awarded contractor in the procurement process results in less attention to contractor performance and contractor supply chain. Some other factors also contributed to poor performance, such as over budget, time delays, quality of construction product lower than the minimum requirement, frequent substitution of key personnel (often occurring several times) during project implementation, and difficulties related to accountability.

The objective of this paper is to identify the major root causes in poor performance of the construction industry in Indonesia, through field observation of in-progress projects. This analysis is a process approach (Kashiwagi; 2005a, Moon; 2007), which assumes that the problems related to process, with the hypothesis that the current construction process is inefficient, creates an adversarial environment and lacks performance information. The analysis of the problem pattern within and the causes of the existing conditions of the construction process are expected to provide valuable lessons which can be used as a basis for the development of a new framework for overall performance enhancement.¤

[Dewi Larasati & Watanabe Tsunemi, JOURNAL of JSCE-Construction Management, Vol. 16, p. 399-410]


The growth of construction industry in Indonesia is now running slowly, compared to other industries. This slow growth is caused by the industry’s lack of efficiency. Such a drawback leads to inability of local construction companies to compete at international level. In the ever growing international competition the Indonesian construction industry must find ways to compete in an even competitive open global construction market.

The inefficiency occurs because the characteristic of construction projects are in the state of constant changes. This is assumed as source of problems in the Indonesian construction industry because it does not cope with the adverse effect of changes, which is often causing poor performance result such as high execution fund, project execution delay, conflict among parties, and at the end causing high level of inefficiency.

A profound study is needed to improve the efficiency of construction project delivery systems. To do this study, existing conditions of the construction industry in Indonesia should be evaluated first. Results of this evaluation expectantly can give a clearer figure of existing conditions of the construction industry in Indonesia and give direction in the next research to improve its performance and the competitiveness.¤

[Dewi Larasati & Watanabe Tsunemi, Presented in SSMS 2009, Japan]


Although considered as an important part and the backbone of the national economy, the construction industry in Indonesia is growing rather slowly, as opposed to other industries. In the ever growing international competition the Indonesian construction industry must find ways to compete in an even competitive open global construction market. This slow in growth among others is caused by the industry’s lack of efficiency; such a drawback that leads to inability of local construction companies to compete at international level. This paper discusses a preliminary study designed to investigate the construction industry’s supply chain structure, as an initial step toward developing strategy for improving its competitiveness. Supply chain management (SCM) in construction industry represents a consciously efforts in forming cooperative network and executing construction work amongst the construction players to accomplish the project objectives. Although formally unrecognized, the application of SCM in the Indonesian construction industry is believed to be inexistence. In its initial stage the research was able to identify different patterns of supply chain structure and mechanism in building construction project performed by three major national contractors. In addition, the research also indicated that the construction company’s business policy plays significant role in dictating the selection of SCM patterns. This finding has laid important foundation toward a more thorough study on SCM in Indonesian construction industry.


The country development needs the integrated support of a good investment product on public works, therefore an effective public procurement system is essential to accelerate the development. Since the volume of annual public procurement is large, especially for developing country such as Indonesia, the potential economic and social benefits of public work procurement are also large for the country. Nowadays, the volume of Indonesia annual budget for public procurement is US$35 billion at FY 2010, then improvement of a few percentage points in public work performance probably could save hundreds million dollars of value for money. Moreover, the procurement phase is in the middle of project life cycle. Improvement of the procurement phase is expected to reduce risks that arise in the previous phase and anticipate the risks that will appear in the next phase. Therefore the intensive efforts of developing procurement strategy should be made to increase existing performance of public work. This paper objectives are to develop model of optimum procurement strategy that ensures all key risks will be addressed to the party who most able to control the risks, to encourage the stakeholder in improving performance of public procurement and to find appropriate ways of managing the risks. The study will be based on the field observation result of two public clients that carry out public works in Indonesia. Observation result demonstrated that the significant risks appear in Indonesia public work procurement are; administration/ legal risk, moral/ human resource risk, technical/ procedural risk, and political risk. Therefore, the study will be focused on performance factors that related to the risks. The analysis result of the observation study could hopefully providing some valuable lessons which can be used as a basis for the development of a new framework for overall performance enhancement. ¤


The problem of controlling a built environment and creating conditions favourable to human activities (e.g. controlling the influence of climate) is as old as human civilization. Through the ages men have sought the shape of the building, to fulfil basic human needs, making a protection from the bad environment elements and provision of a favourable atmosphere. Building design has reflected, throughout its history, with the advanced solution in each period. 

In fact a lot of young designer in recent time do not understand enough about this problem nor trying to learn from the past. Therefore their design became environmentally unfriendly, or if they try to solve this problem, the solutions are expensive and inefficient. 

This research objective is to give a good understanding for young designer on building design using climatic approach (bioclimatic design concepts). Another objective is to provide design method to help them to achieve better solution on sun shading design as the implementation of bioclimatic design concepts. The final design solution is not result of a subjective trial and error process, but more as a systematic and detailed decision making process.  

 The sun shading design method consists of three stages. The first is selecting alternatives from available alternatives. The second stage is determining energy consumed for air conditioner and lighting for each selected alternative. The last stage, before final design, is determining the construction, operational and maintenance cost for the implementation of sun shading.¤    

[Presented in SENVAR V, UTM Malaysia, 2004, under the title : ” Sun shading design method for multi-storey office building in Jakarta at preliminary design stage” ]


Pelaksanaan pembangunan rumah pasca-bencana di Indonesia, atau sering disebut dengan istilah rekonstruksi, hingga saat ini masih menunjukan kemajuan yang relatif lambat serta hasil yang kurang memuaskan. Kebutuhan mendesak dalam waktu singkat akan rumah dalam jumlah banyak seringkali menyebabkan perencanaan yang terburu-buru tanpa melibatkan masyarakat dalam setiap tahapannya.

Pembangunan yang dilakukan sepenuhnya oleh pihak ketiga (kontraktor), yang membangun rumah secara masal banyak dipraktekkan di Aceh. Sistem produksi dengan mendatangkan teknologi baru, material, serta tenaga kerja dari luar,  menimbulkan ketidakpuasan masyarakat dan berdampak timbulnya fenomena rumah kosong. Pembangunan dengan pola pelibatan masyarakat di Yogyakarta menunjukan tingkat kepuasan masyarakat yang cukup tinggi. Hal ini sejalan dengan penelitian di India, yang membandingkan macam-macam pola pelaksanaan rekonstruksi pasca bencana di Gujarat. Dengan mendapat kepercayaan untuk membangun rumahnya sendiri, masyarakat memiliki rasa kepemilikan yang tinggi terhadap rumahnya. Rumah pun dapat dihuni oleh pemiliknya walaupun belum 100% rampung. Akan tetapi, metode konvensional serta kemampuan pekerja yang tidak terlatih pada pembangunan dengan pola pelibatan masyarakat sering mengakibatkan produktivitas rendah, tidak efisien, serta kualitas yang buruk.

Oleh karena itu, pokok penelitian ini diharapkan akan menghasilkan rancangan model proses produksi pembangunan rumah pasca bencana berbasis kemampuan lokal, yang dapat diimplementasikan dalam pelaksanaan proses rekonstruksi pasca bencana di Indonesia, dengan kualitas yang baik diserta tingkat produktifitas dan efisiensi yang baik pula.

Untuk mencapai tujuan yang dimaksud tersebut, maka metoda penelitian yang dipilih dimulai dengan studi lapangan (observasi, survey, wawancara, kuisioner) di beberapa lokasi yang mengalami bencana di Indonesia untuk mendapatkan gambaran kondisi eksisting. Dari studi lapangan ini dianalisis faktor-faktor positif dan paling mempengaruhi keberhasilan pembangunan rumah pasca bencana berbasis kemampuan lokal. Faktor-faktor tersebut akan dirumuskan menjadi kriteria, yang kemudian dikembangkan menjadi sebuah rancangan model. Pada akhirnya diharapkan bahwa penelitian yang diusulkan ini akan memberikan luaran yang bermanfaat bagi para pelaksana rekonstruksi dan pendamping masyarakat untuk mempercepat pembangunan pasca bencana dengan memanfaatkan kemampuan lokal. ¤

[Presented in National Seminar at UTY, Jogjakarta, 2007]